Nayarit

Welcome to Nayarit, visiting our State is discovering tropical paradises, exotic beaches, magical islands, exuberant vegetation, abundant fauna, majestic lagoons, enigmatic volcanoes, the imposing mountain region with its original towns, these are some of the places that preserve the most beautiful landscapes that invite you to live a unique and special trip, where your senses delight with the natural, historical and cultural diversity that characterize our beautiful state "Nayarit", an ideal place to visit and learn about its essence, flavor, splendor, practice activities and experiences that will remain in your mind for life. Know, live and feel Nayarit ... because Nayarit falls in love.

With a generous and young spirit, since the entity in 2017 celebrated its first Centennial as a Free and Sovereign State.

Nayarit comes from the nayeri (cora) and means: "Son of God who is in heaven and in the Sun."

The state has vestiges of the pre-Hispanic era. The shellsThey were among the first settlers in the state and exploited the estuarine coastal environments and because as they developed, they built the first towns with the disposal of these foods. Since about 2000 years a. C. until the year 1500 a. C., an amazing occupation of towns that perceived the sea as benevolent and stormy God existed. It was also the origin of the artistic experience of modeling and firing clay.

La "Tradition of Tombs of Tire"(500 BC - AD 500) constitutes a peculiar feature in the pre-Hispanic development of Mexico, although similar forms are found in other regions of the continent. The Tombs of Tire found to date in Nayarit territory, were excavated on the outskirts of the population centers of those times in the form of a vertical well, with one or two chambers in which they placed their dead along with various ceramic objects such as sculptures. human and animal.

Also large bowls in which they deposited funeral offerings, which reflect the development achieved by this tradition, with the particularities of the region in which they have been located.

Within history there is also the "Mexcaltitán Island", the legendary Island of Aztlán that according to the Boturini Codex establishes that it is the place from which the Aztec tribes left to settle in the Valley of Mexico. There are some comparisons between the aerial photographs of Mexcaltitán and the drawings made in the XNUMXth century by the Spanish conquerors of Tenochtitlán, since both places present exactly the same layout of streets and channels; establishing a clear similarity and relationship between them.

The island is unique in its kind, it has a diameter of 400 meters long by 350 meters wide, it has a couple of streets oriented from north to south, which intersect with another pair oriented from east to west and a circular called Venice that unites them all together.

In the Viceroy periodThe expedition of Francisco Cortés de San Buenaventura arrived in the region and began the conquest and evangelization at various points in the state. On May 8, 1530, Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán conquered the Nayarit territory, whom he called "Conquest of the Holy Spirit of Greater Spain". On July 25, 1532, Nueva Galicia was founded with its capital Santiago de Galicia de Compostela, whose extension covered the present states of Colima, Jalisco, Aguascalientes, Durango, Sinaloa, San Luis Potosí and Nayarit.

In 1536, Diego Pérez de la Torre was the first governor of the kingdom. In 1538, the first indigenous rebellion against the Spanish occurred. In 1722, the last resistance to the Spanish conquest was overcome, the peninsular managed to conquer the Sierra de Álica de Nayarit.

In 1744 the first port was founded in the state of Nayarit. The Port of Matanchén was opened to maritime navigation, which disappeared in 1768. In this same year, Mr. José de Gálvez founded the Port of San Blas. In the period from 1768 to 1792, it was undoubtedly the golden age of navigation in the main port of Nayarit. During this period, 7 Jesuit and Franciscan expeditions left the Port of San Blas for the conquest of the Californias, highlighting the expedition of the 12 Franciscan missionaries who, led by Fray Junípero Serra, left the Port of San Blas in "San Carlos" bound for Baja California and the Philippines in 1779.

The Port of San Blas was distinguished as one of the most important in Mexico, in terms of trade and navigation with the regions of North America, with the regions of western Mexico and with the far and near east.

In January 1801 the rumor appeared throughout the Nayarit territory of the appearance of El Indio Mariano alias "Golden Mask", natural indigenous leader who sought independence and autonomy of the territory from the Spanish yoke, the Spanish themselves and the representatives of his interests in this region, the rumor of the Mariano Indian was alarmed and reproduced as far as the city of Guadalajara and other towns in the area.

On November 23, 1810, the priest José María Mercado de Ahualulco, Jalisco, appeared in Tepic as representative of the liberating and independence army of the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.

Completed the Mexico's independenceIn 1824, the struggles between centralists and federalists produced an unstable social and political situation. In Jalisco, while the Federal Government was not defined, the first Constituent Congress was formed with 19 deputies, 17 from Jalisco and 2 from Nayarit, Ramón Ignacio Prisciliano Sánchez de Ahuacatlán and José Ignacio Cañedo de Compostela, Nayarit.

In 1825, the old territory of New Galicia was transformed, with the Constitutional Congress of Jalisco, into the Seventh Canton of Jalisco composed of 7 departments (Tepic, Acaponeta, Ahuacatlán, Sentispac, San Blas, Santa María del Oro and Compostela) and 14 municipalities.

In 1833, the Jauja yarn and fabric factory was established.

In 1835, the first federalist period ended and the first centralist period also began. The Governor of Jalisco issued a decree to suppress the City Councils. From 7 Departments it was passed to 2 Parties or Districts (Tepic and Ahuacatlán), and from 14 municipalities it was passed to 13 Towns.

The Bellavista textile factory in the municipality of Tepic, was founded in 1841 by Mr. Eustaquio Barrón and Guillermo Forbes and in 1842 the Sugar Mill of the Hacienda de Puga emerged.

In 1847, Juan Escutia, a native of this state, distinguished himself along with other cadets in the defense of Mexico against the North American invasion.

On September 20, 1857, Manuel Lozada, “El Tigre de Álica”, along with a group of Coras indigenous people, assaulted the Mojarras estate, municipality of Santa María del Oro. In 1858, Lozada joined the conservatives and confronted to the liberals of the region; in 1860 Lozada separated from the conservatives; On February 1862, 14, the Pochotitán Treaty was signed in the city of Tepic, between the Governor of Jalisco, Pedro Ogazón, and Manuel Lozada, "El Tigre de Álica", in order to pacify the territory of Nayarit. On January 1864, 7, Lozada signed a document in which he recognized the monarchical government of Maximilian of Habsburg. When the Republic triumphed, on August 1867, XNUMX, it was decreed that the Seventh Canton of Jalisco would become the Tepic Military District, dependent on the Federal District.

In 1870, the Ceboruco volcano erupted for the first time and Lozada returned to take up arms, summoning the poor and needy to continue the fight for the independence of Nayarit. In 1873, Lozada published his “Plan Libertador”, in which a lozada more distant from the conservatives Barrón and Forbes and closer to the liberal Castaños is observed. Faced with the threat that Lozada would take Guadalajara, the landowners of the time and government forces decided to confront "El Tigre de Álica" with all their military resources in the town of La Mojonera, on January 28, 1873, from that date it was persecuted until he was assassinated on July 19 of the same year. Dead Lozada, the Porfirista Manuel González and Juan Lerma from Loza, signed in Xalisco, Nayarit, the final peace of the Tepic Military District, on April 12, 1880.

In 1894 the first labor movement took place in the Bellavista factory, organized by the women Francisca and Maclovia Quintero, Victoriana Arroyo, Adelina and Mariana Castañeda; In 1896, the workers 'movement rose in the Jauja factory and in 1905 the brothers Pedro Gregorio and Enrique Elías carried out a new workers' uprising in the Bellavista textile factory.

In 1912, the Tepic-Acaponeta railway section was inaugurated, a fact that allowed considerable development in the state.

On May 1, 1917, the Tepic Military District became Free and Sovereign State of Nayarit. On February 5, 1918, the Political Constitution of the State of Nayarit was signed.

In 1926, the railroad track linking the city of Tepic with Guadalajara was completed.

During the period 1934-1937, the dominance of the political, social, economic and cultural structures of the large estates in Nayarit ended.

From 1946 to 1951 a new stage of modernism began in the entity. For 1969 the Autonomous University of Nayarit was founded and in 1972 Tepic Technological Institute.

In 1989, municipality number 20 was established, Bahía de Banderas, located in the south of the state, bordering the state of Jalisco.

In the period from 1987 to 1993 the Aguamilpa hydroelectric dam, the Tepic international airport, was built; the Plan de Barrancas and Tepic-Crucero de San Blas highways, the Filo bridges over the Acaponeta river, the Huajicori bridge over the Las Cañas river and the Tuxpan over the San Pedro river were inaugurated.

From 1993 to 1999 the Tepic-Guadalajara highway was built and the Villa Hidalgo-La Presa-Santiago bridge over the Santiago river was inaugurated.

The culture of Nayarit is a product of the miscegenation between the indigenous customs and the Spanish culture that arrived after the discovery of America. From the Spanish influx came all the burden of the religious.

The other side of the cultural influx was due to the presence of millennial indigenous tribes, its population is mainly of indigenous roots, among which tribes such as the Wixaricas (Huicholes), Coras, Tepehuanos and Mexicaneros can be highlighted; heirs to a great ancient culture full of mysticism and magical traditions. These groups are located in the majestic mountainous area of ​​the Sierra Madre Occidental, which runs through our state, Jalisco, Zacatecas and Durango. The origin and laws that govern his social and religious life, maintains the purity of his race, as well as his great spiritual strength. Faithful to defend their culture and tradition, the Nayarite ethnic groups today share unique experiences with those who visit them, exchanging cultures and worldviews.

The Wixáricas (Huicholes)

They are the majority representative group in the state, Wixárica means "person with a deep heart who loves knowledge." also known in Spanish as huicholes. In this group the civil authority is headed by a governor named totohuani, and it is renewed annually. The mara'akate or maraakames - singers or priests - have the mission of preserving and keeping traditions alive, their traditional spirituality includes the collection and consumption of peyote, a cactus that has hallucinogenic effects due to its psychoactive alkaloids.

The typical costume of the man is long underpants of blanket and shirt of the same material, open on the sides, both finally embroidered with figures of their deities, in bright colors and fastened at the waist by a sash of wool or yarn of which several peyoteros bags linked by a cord. They wear leather huaraches with a crossed strap, a palm hat adorned with feathers, a bead, a yarn, they cross up to four woven or embroidered backpacks, a handkerchief that ties at the neck and usually use beaded bracelets, necklace and ring. The woman wears a beautiful suit made up of a skirt, blouse and a kind of blanket scarf that they wear on their heads and that are usually embroidered.

The first festivity of the year that the Huichol celebrate, is the Fiesta del Cambio de Varas (change of authorities) and takes place in the first days of January of each year. The Peyote Festival is held in the last days of February or the first days of March. The Corn Festival is celebrated during a full moon in October.

The Coras

They are located in the Del Nayar municipality in the communities of Jesús María, La Mesa del Nayar and Santa Teresa. The main rites are the “Mitote”, which is performed within the corn production cycle, comprising “Las Fiestas de la Chicharra”, from the sowing of the first fruits of corn knowledge. It starts in May and ends in June. Other important festivals are the Holy Week Cora in the Mesa del Nayar, the Fiesta de las Pachitas, which begins on February 2 and ends on Shrove Tuesday and the traditional Dance of the Urraca, the latter danced exclusively by young people from the Cora tribe As it requires vigor and physical strength to endure dancing for three consecutive days.

The man's typical attire is austere, leather huaraches, white blanket pants, several brightly colored overlapping shirts, woven palm hat, and woven wool bag. The woman wears lightly embroidered ankle-length dress with long colored aprons and long-sleeved cotton blouses adorned with patches of flowery fabric, as well as a dark shawl that they use to secure the children on their back, complementing their ornaments with a bag. wool and colored necklaces

The Tepehuanos

The Tepehuanos live in the states of Durango, Nayarit and Chihuahua. They are divided into two groups: Tepehuanos del Norte and Tepehuanos del Sur, the latter living in Nayarit, in the community of San Andrés, Milpillas Grande or Pueblo Viejo, belonging to the municipality of Huajicori. The Tepehuanos are small-scale farmers and herders who dedicate themselves to the cultivation of mezcal.

The religious ceremonies are called "Mitotes", which lasts for five days, which is the sacred number of Coras, Huichol and Tepehuanos. The first four days are destined for penance, fasting, and prayer. The night of the fifth day is dedicated to ritual dance. They are parties dedicated to promoting fertility or to give thanks for the favors received. At the beginning of October, the Feast of Corn or First Fruits is celebrated, in which mezcal is consumed.

His typical costume is a breech and a blanket shirt, both slightly embroidered with sewing threads, rawhide huaraches, a sollate hat with a ribbon over the top, a neckerchief and an ixtle knitted backpack.

The Mexicaneros

The members of this town identify themselves as Mexicans or Mexicanos. Their language is Nahuatl or Mexican, which is classified in the Yuto-Nahua linguistic family; which corresponds to 2 of the 30 linguistic variants registered nationally for this language.

They live mainly in three communities in the Sierra Madre Occidental: San Pedro Jícoras and San Agustín de Buenaventura, in Durango, and Santa Cruz, in Nayarit, settlements located within the Sierra Madre Occidental.

There is no certainty about the origin of the members of the Mexican people. When the Spanish arrived in the region that they called Nueva Vizcaya in 1531, they found a population that was generically identified as Chichimecas. Some authors consider that these are groups detached from the Aztec pilgrimage that was heading towards central Mexico. Others establish that the Spanish used to move Nahuatl speakers loyal to them, especially Tlaxcala, to territories where they faced problems of domination.

Their main productive activity is seasonal agriculture, mainly maize, squash and beans on land located mostly on the slopes of the hills, identified as coamil, where they practice the slash, grave and burn system, whose product is destined to self-consumption, although it is insufficient.

As for their clothing, women wear blouses of different colors that have vertical slats, as well as a wide pleated skirt; At the waist they use a kind of apron with ribbons also of different colors in vertical position. Men generally wear denim pants or synthetic fabrics and a white or striped or plaid shirt, as well as a palm hat known as a soyate.

Religious activity focuses on festivals held in honor of saints of Catholic origin and xuravet ceremonies. In the first case they celebrate the Candelaria, the Pachitas or Carnival, linked to Christ-Sun, Easter, San Pedro and Santiago. And in the second, which consists of three types, the "feather", the "water" and the "corn". Although the dates may vary, the first takes place between February and March, the second between April and May and the third between September and November, at the end of the rainy season. Undoubtedly, the traditional festivals in Nayarit are true points of social concentration, the majority of which are religious and are associated with commercial exhibitions. Some municipalities or towns have their festivals, dances and traditions, some of the most important in the state are:

• Nayarit Fair in Tepic • Christmas Fair in Tepic • Elote or La Purísima Concepción Fair on August 15 in the municipalities of Jala and Xalisco • Abruxa Fair of Tuxpan • Spring Fair in Santiago Ixcuintla • The veneration of the Virgin of the Candelaria on February 2 in Huajicori, as well as of the Virgin of Guadalupe in the Sanctuary and in the church of the town of El Pichón in the municipality of Tepic. • Amado Nervo Festival • Ali Chumacero Festival

Nayarit is recognized for its delicious gastronomy, which is derived from its excellent geographical location, its biodiversity and the fertility of its land; elements that make up a wide range of ingredients that merge into a plate to delight your palate with endless flavors and aromas. It is the origin of various very representative dishes of Mexico, the most characteristic is the "zarandeado fish", recognized as a tropical delicacy, which is cooked on the Nayarit beaches, accompanied by other delicacies made from fish and seafood, highlighting the "Oysters in their shell", the roasted shrimp in rods colloquially called "pregnant", the "aguachile" and the "ceviches" of fish, shrimp, octopus, ax callus, mule leg, lobster and snail, as well as other specialties gourmet style. On the magical Island of Mexcaltitán you will delight with the famous “Tlaxtihulli”, a dish of pre-Hispanic origin consisting of a mixture of corn atole with ground shrimp, chili and spices, accompanied by shrimp dumplings.

A very representative dish of the State. If you visit the Santa María del Oro Lagoon, be sure to try the “chicharrón de fish”, the “diced fish ceviche”, the traditional “capirotada” and the fried banana dessert with snow; dishes that attract thousands of tourists for their delicious flavor. In the Magic Town of Jala, delight yourself with the rich corn known for its large size, some ears measure up to 60 centimeters due to the substances in the farmland, due to its proximity to the El Ceboruco Volcano. This corn called the "Jala" breed is unique in the world. Currently, Nayarian gastronomy is recognized as Intangible Heritage of the State, with the aim of safeguarding the essence of typical dishes, techniques and artisan utensils that have been a fundamental part of each family, generation after generation. From north to south and from the mountains to the coast, Nayarit is full of colors, aromas and flavors that will make your trip an unforgettable culinary experience.

Without further ado Nayarit is a paradise that offers unique experiences, thanks to which we always hope that tourists return soon.

BTS