Jalisco

Capital: Guadalajara
Inhabitant: Jalisciense
Altitude: 1,540 masl
Population 2010: 7'350,682 inhabitants.
Political Division: 125 Municipalities
Regions: 12
Coasts: 341.93 Kms. Of coastline
Jalisco means “On the sand” and it is established as the third state entity with the largest population and an important pole of economic, commercial and cultural activities.

There are sufficient elements to suppose that the formal appearance of the first human settlements in western Mexico dates back 7 thousand years ago.
For your study, the cultural evolution in this region has been divided into two stages from the beginning of agriculture and settlement in villages, around 1500 BC.

The first stage covers a little more than 2000 years and is characterized by the adoption of life in the villages, as well as the practice of agriculture that added to hunting and gathering. Sedentary life allowed them to dedicate themselves to other activities such as the manufacture of ceramics, the practice of religious and funeral ceremonies, and barter.
The tombs date from this time, this cultural manifestation was only presented in western Mexico and South America; The territory of the current state of Jalisco was inhabited by various ethnic groups: bapames, caxcanes, cocas, cuachichiles, huicholes, cuyutecos, otomíes, nahuas, tecuejes, tepehuanes, tecos, purépechas, pinomes, tzaultecas and xilotlantzingas. Other authors also mention pines, otontlatolis, amultecas, coras, xiximes, tecuares, tecoxines and tecualmes.

In the XNUMXth century, upon the arrival of the Spanish, the inhabitants of the northwestern region of Mexico, in general, were peacefully submitted to the authority of the Hispanic crown.
In order to achieve the conquest of this region, several expeditions were made during the first third of the 1521th century, entering these lands Cristóbal de Olid (1521), Alonso de Avalos (1521), Juan Álvarez Chico (1522), Gonzalo de Sandoval (1524) , Francisco Cortés de San Buenaventura (1530), and Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán (XNUMX) accompanied by Pedro Almíndez Chirinos and Cristóbal de Oñate.

With the company of Nuño de Guzmán, the neo-Galician colonization began and its conquest almost ended when it took possession of the lands located on the right bank of the Lerma River, on June 5, 1530, giving it the name of Conquest of the Holy Spirit of the Major Spain, to the territories submitted by him and his captains.

On December 4, 1786, Carlos III issued the law entitled "Royal Ordinance for the establishment and instruction of mayors of armies and province in the kingdom of New Spain", through which the viceroyalty established the political-administrative system of administration , which remained until the first decades of the 12th century. With this system, New Spain was divided into XNUMX municipalities and three provinces.
At the end of the 9,600th century, Nueva Galicia reached a territorial extension of more than 27 square leagues, populated by more than half a million inhabitants, and divided into XNUMX jurisdictions.
For the beginning of the XIX century, towards 1804, the Neo-Galician population was divided basically into four groups, these were: Spaniards, Creoles, mestizos and Indians.
In addition to the so-called castes, which were formed with people of mixed blood.
In the first years of the XNUMXth century, the first outbreaks of emancipation began to manifest in the Spanish colonies, among the factors that determined this new stage in American territory are the following: the old opposition between Creoles and peninsular, the ideas of the Enlightenment , and the Napoleonic invasion of Spain.
From 1810, New Galicia became the scene of bloody and decisive battles for the movement that gave independence to New Spain. Among the uprisings that took place in New Galician territory, the following can be named: the uprising of San Miguel de Culiacán in 1533; in the year of 1538, the Coaxicori rebellion; in 1541, the rebellion of the tecoxines and the caxcanes; in this same year the fight and takeover of El Mixtón occurred.

The War of Independence had begun on September 16, 1810, a few days later the first news of the uprising reached Guadalajara under the command of José Antonio Torres, the "Amo Torres", starting his company in Sahuayo, Tizapán el Alto, Atoyac and Zacoalco de Torres.

On October 4, 1810, Torres had appeared before Miguel Hidalgo, who commissioned him to venture into Nueva Galicia and seize Guadalajara. He accomplished this task when, on November 11, the insurgent entered Guadalajara triumphantly.
On November 29, 1810, he issued the decree abolishing slavery. In order to organize the insurgent government, Hidalgo created the Ministries of Grace and Justice, and the Secretary of State and the Office, also appointed a plenipotentiary representative of Mexico in United States territory. By order of Hidalgo, “El Despertador Americano” began to be published, the first tapatío newspaper and also the first to spread the ideas of the insurrection; With this fact the press was born at the service of the insurgent cause, highlighting in this medium a notable Mexican ideologist: Francisco Severo Maldonado.
When Iturbide abdicated, the Supreme Executive Power was formed, with Pedro Celestino Negrete, Nicolás Bravo and Guadalupe Victoria, but since a new Congress was not immediately called, so that the nation would be constituted as a Federal Republic, the authorities of Guadalajara strongly demanded compliance with the House Plan
Woods.

These events together with the tradition of autonomy of New Galicia, fed by the interruption of the colonial pact and the monarchical tradition, explain why on June 16, 1823, the Provincial Deputation of Guadalajara proclaimed itself in favor of the adoption of the system of Federal Republic, as a form of government, anticipating the response of the General Congress of 1824.
June 16, 1823, is the date on which the birth of the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco is commemorated. Its capital is the city of Guadalajara, which has preserved this rank from the XNUMXth century to the present day.
Jalisco was the scene of clashes between the constitutionalist and Villista armies, but these did not significantly affect the internal structures of the entity.
From 1823, Jalisco was always determined to resist the attacks against Federalism, its complete adherence to this form of government was evident in the constant and energetic defense that it always made of it, having as its foundation the principles of sovereignty and freedom themselves that have inspired since 1915 the reorganization of their political, social and economic life, giving priority to municipal autonomy, conceived as the fundamental principle of a country's political freedom.
On February 5, 1917, these principles were included in the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, closing for Jalisco, the stage of its consolidation as a State.

Jalisco has a wide variety of customs and traditions. It is a very Mexican state, many symbols that identify us at the international level have their origin in the state of Jalisco, such as charrería, mariachi and tequila.

THE CHARRERIA

There is no tradition more representative of Jalisco than the charrería, a beautiful party in which the typical Mexican charros or horsemen make lots with the reata either on horseback or on foot, to demonstrate their courage and courage ... Given the great need to have someone helping in the work of the field, in tasks such as grazing cattle and their management in the corrals, mestizos, and even indigenous people, were allowed to ride to collaborate in these tasks, as long as they did so dressed in suede or leather , which over time came to form the typical charro costume. After a while it became a sport; The Charros Associations are born and the canvases begin to compete in the famous Charreadas, where the rider performs various disciplines on horseback. Now there is the National Association of Charros which is made up of state charro teams and associations, carrying out once a year in different cities of one of the most Mexican festivals, proudly of Jalisco origin.

MARIACHI

Who has not heard one or many times the notes of the Jalisco sounds performed with joy and great mastery by the mariachi; Or who does not have any memory that revives listening to the mariachi singing ranchero songs that speak of love and feeling. The first mariachis were not as we currently know them; no trumpets were used in the orchestration and only the vihuela strings, the guitar and the guitarrón were heard in their performances; the lyrics of a popular song say that the mariachi is from Cocula and from Tecalitlán the sones, it seems more that the history takes us to the Altos de Jalisco, specifically to the Municipality of Teocaltiche, as probable cradle of the primitive mariachi. However it may be, the mariachi, which represents Mexico worldwide, dressed in the Charra style, although in the charrería the black colors, frequently used by mariachis are only worn for wakes and weddings, was born in Jalisco and today it is valid for them any colorful range in their suits, similar to those of charro, with buttons and metal applications that give this pride of our State a special attraction.

THE TEQUILA

Surely there is no more representative drink from Jalisco and one that is more appealing to one's own and strange palate than Tequila, a magnificent fermentation from the blue agave pineapple, which produces an alcoholic drink of great nobility, body and delicious flavor. Amatitán, Jalisco, although it is in the town of Tequila that its growth occurs and the one that gives it not only the name, but the designation of origin by which no drink produced outside that area can be called that. It is worth mentioning that the production of tequila, unlike what has been handled romantically in some texts, has not existed since pre-Hispanic times, since distillation is a process brought to our lands by the Spanish and unknown until then by the natives of the region. In any case, the result is what is important and without a doubt it is very pleasant and successful, since the primitive forbidden colonial drink called "rabbit blood" was improved to excellence, today having high quality tequilas and excellent taste and purity. . The trilogy of mariachi music, sung while the charros engage in a fierce battle of skills during a charreada, while enjoying a good Tequila, is undoubtedly a representative image of Jalisco and its traditions, which has transcended borders.

Jalisco contributes dishes that have achieved recognition within national and international gastronomy, some of the most famous and liked dishes in the state are: Food.- Gorditas and corn sopes throughout the state; mole enchiladas throughout the state; sheep to the Tapalpa shepherd; Cocula birria; often and pozole throughout the state; birria de chivo from Ciudad Guzmán; charales on the banks of Chapala; drowned cakes from Guadalajara; tamales across the state.

Beverages.- The root of the coastal region; fruit punches throughout the state; tequila from the center of the state and the highlands region; the tuba of Autlán de Navarro; mezcal throughout the state; tepache throughout the state; mead throughout the state; the "cazuelas" of Ocotlán and La Barca; atoles across the country; rompopes from Sayula and Tapalpa; Texan from the central region; aviaries throughout the state.

Typical sweet.- The milk sweets of Chapala and the region of the highlands, The cocadas of the coastal region; Sayula's burnt milk cartons; guava rolls from Atenguillo and Mascota; walnut crowbars from Ciudad Guzmán; tuna cheese from Ojuelos de Jalisco; mangoes and plums in syrup from San Cristobal de la Barranca; alfajor of San Juan de los Lagos; quince jelly from Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos and Valle de Guadalupe; tamarind sweets from the coastal region; buñuelos from Guadalajara and the highlands area.