To the south of Yucatan, the archaeological zone of Uxmal, declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site, emerges spectacularly. It is one of the archaeological zones of the Mayan culture whose architecture is one of the most majestic in Yucatan.
Uxmal is one of the archaeological zones of the Mayan culture whose architecture is one of the most majestic in Yucatan. Its beauty is characterized by having low and horizontal palaces, placed around patios or quadrangles, which are rich in highly detailed sculpture decorations made with thousands of small stones perfectly polished and adjusted forming geometric mosaics of unmatched perfection throughout the area. Maya.
The city of Uxmal is said to have been founded by the Xiues tribe. The occupation of the site dates back to the upper Preclassic BC, however, the greatest volume of the construction work was carried out during the Late Classic (600-1000 AD). It had a population of approximately 20,000 inhabitants.
Political and economic control was governed by a select group of individuals since society recognized them as intermediaries between men and divinities. Thus, through religion, the ruling class monopolized the main activities in its various manifestations of the population settled in Uxmal. Little by little, Uxmal was transformed into one of the main regional capitals of the northern Maya, until achieving the establishment of a political power that allowed control of other minor sites and made it possible for Uxmal to establish itself as the regional capital of the Puuc.
The highly fertile soils for agricultural activity must have supported these ancient settlers. The cults to the water, the earth, the Sun and Venus, are also present in the orientation and in the decoration of their structures. More than 160 chultunes or cisterns have been found in the central core of Uxmal to collect water from the rains, since in this area there were no cenotes, and there was no other source of supply of the indispensable liquid.
Uxmal was abandoned around 1080 AD, shortly after the end of the Classic period in the south. It is believed that its decline was probably due to a social revolt that ended the ruling elite.