Puebla

The Foundation
The City of Angels, today Four Times Heroic Puebla de Zaragoza, unlike other cities in New Spain, did not exist as a population before the arrival of the Spanish in Mesoamerica, so it was not assigned to any encomendero or conqueror. It was an unpopulated area, adjoining several pre-Hispanic manors, known by the name of Cuetlaxcoapan or "Place where snakes change their skin", with a privileged location surrounded by fertile valleys and abundant sprouts of fresh water.
Those responsible for founding a "Puebla of Spaniards" in this area were the Second Hearing, represented by the orator Don Juan de Salmerón, with the authorization of Queen Elizabeth of Portugal, as well as the first bishop of the newly founded Diocese of Tlaxcala, the Dominican Brother Julián Garcés and the Franciscan Brother Toribio de Benavente “Motolinía”.

Thus, on April 16, 1531, a mass was held with which this new foundation was established, which would receive the title of City on March 20, 1532, through a document signed by Isabel de Portugal, known as “Cédula Real". In 1538 it was possible that the same queen granted a coat of arms to this city, through the "Royal Provision".
The titles and privileges that ennobled the city came very quickly, since on July 12, 1558, he received the title of "Noble and Loyal"; on February 24, 1561 he was entitled "Very Noble and Loyal". The Royal Provision signed by King Felipe II where he named it "Very Loyal" was signed on February 6, 1577. In this way this city equaled the titles of the great cities of the Spanish Crown: "Very Noble and Very Loyal City of the Angels".

The Viceroyalty
During the Viceroyalty, the city of Los Angeles reached an economic, artistic and cultural boom that led it to compare it with Mexico City, the capital of New Spain.
The oldest known plan of the city of Puebla and in which the trace is observed, was prepared by Cristóbal de Guadalajara in 1698 and is preserved in the General Archive of the Indies (Seville, Spain). It shows the distribution of lots and the large number of roads that connected the city with other towns in all its cardinal points.
The rapid growth of this city was reflected in the birth of educational institutions for the population. For this reason, the Jesuits came to the city to found several schools, including the College of the Holy Spirit (April 15, 1578). Over the years, this College became the State College, which became the Autonomous University of Puebla due to the educational needs of the city.
The importance of Puebla was reflected in the transfer of the episcopal see from Tlaxcala, which meant a radical change in its history.

For this reason, the consecration of the Cathedral, on April 18, 1649, by Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, has been a historical event that changed the history of the city, since the cathedral building since those years has been a Unique and obligatory reference of art, culture and history, not only of Puebla, but of Mexico and Latin America.

Another of his works that left a mark forever in the city was the donation in 1646 of his personal library to the schools of San Pedro and San Juan, with the aim of having a public library, an extraordinary and unique fact for the time that brought knowledge closer to the population. Over the decades, the heritage grew and in 1773 Bishop Francisco Fabián y Fuero ordered the construction of the wonderful building and shelves that today the Palafoxiana Library, considered not only the first public library on the continent, but also the only library old of America that conserves its original building, furniture, bookshelf and heritage. For these reasons, in June 2015 UNESCO registered her in the “Memory of the World” program.

On April 16, 1690, another event occurred that left one of the most important artistic treasures in history, the opening of the Chapel of the Rosary in the Church of Santo Domingo, which since that year was known as "the Eighth Wonder of the The new World". This chapel continues to captivate locals and strangers alike for its beauty, perfection and symbolic message that leave us no room for doubt when speaking of Puebla as a great center of New Spanish Art.

XIX century
From August 2 to 5, 1821, Bishop Antonio Joaquín Pérez Martínez lodged Agustín de Iturbide on his way to Villa de Córdoba, Veracruz, in the former Episcopal Palace, today the Federal Palace, where he would sign together with Don Juan O´Donojú , the last viceroy that New Spain had, the treaties that recognized the Independence of Mexico from the Spanish Crown.
Even some months before, the Plan de Iguala had been printed and publicly published in the Puebla newspaper "La Abeja Poblana", which contained the fundamental ideas to end the fight for the Independence of Mexico.
On Sunday, August 5, Iturbide swore in the Mayor, aldermen and the inhabitants of the contained ideas of the Plan of Iguala, with which the city of Puebla was the first metropolis to declare itself independent from Spain.

The first automated textile factory in Latin America was also installed in this city. Founded on January 7, 1835 by Don Estaban de Antuñano, the factory "La Constancia Mexicana" bears this name for the effort that not only its creation meant, since in addition to the capital invested, it was necessary to overcome the bad fortune that sank the ship that transported the machinery to the factory on several occasions.
Among all the historical events that occurred in Puebla, one stands out for being an example of sovereignty: the Battle of May 5, 1862. After the War of the Reform, Mexico had significant economic debts with Spain, England and France. An agreement could not be reached with the latter country, which led to the invasion in 1862. The French forces had the objective of taking Mexico City, so they first had to control Puebla. The city was defended by only 2 men from the Army of the East under the command of General Ignacio Zaragoza, who had to confront more than 7 French soldiers. The battle to stop the advance of the invading troops began at noon on May 5, 1862, and after almost 5 hours of hand-to-hand fighting, the Mexicans managed to defeat what was considered the strongest army in the world. The appointment of Puebla de Zaragoza was granted by President Benito Juárez on September 11, 1862, in honor of General Ignacio Zaragoza, hero of this battle, who had died of typhus at the age of 33 in this city on September 8 of the same year.

The following year, the city of Puebla was besieged by the French Army for 62 days, in which there were bombings and extensive destruction. The defense of the Siege of Puebla, led by Gral. Jesús González Ortega ended on May 17 in a heroic way, even recognized by the invaders themselves, since the city fell more due to lack of food and water than due to military power French.
After 4 years of French invasion, the beginning of the Restoration of the Republic also took place in Puebla. After almost 4 years of resistance, the Mexican Army of the Republic had reorganized to face the troops of the Second Empire and retake the government of the country. Gral. Porfirio Díaz, prepared an attack on Puebla, which was essential to achieve this objective, so that since March 9, 1867, he began a siege against the city.

Thus, on April 2, 1867, he led the strongest military offensive to break the conservative military siege, beginning the Restoration of the Republic, which will result in the return of Benito Juárez to the presidency of Mexico and the definitive expulsion of the French.

The XNUMXth century
The first great revolution of the 26th century, the Mexican one, also had its origins in Puebla. Aquiles Serdán was one of the most important sympathizers of Francisco I. Madero, who promoted the ideas of Non-reelection and respect for the vote in the presidential elections, especially after the electoral fraud of June XNUMX in which the victory of Madero and Porfirio Díaz was re-elected as President.
For this reason, on the morning of November 18, 1910, a police fence was made around the home of Natalia Serdán, where her mother, María del Carmen Alatriste, and her three brothers lived: Carmen, Máximo and Aquiles along with their wife Filomena del Valle. The objective was to carry out a search under the pretext that weapons were kept there. When police chief Miguel Cabrera entered the house to arrest Aquiles Serdán, he was shot in the head, killing him, initiating a shooting that lasted more than three hours. The result was the death of Máximo Serdán and other anti-reelectionist sympathizers. Carmen Serdán was wounded and Achilles hid to meet later with the Maderistas, although he was assassinated in the early hours of the following day. With this fact it is considered that the Mexican Revolution began, which would take Madero to the presidency of Mexico.

Today Puebla's industrial growth could not be understood without the automotive industry, with the establishment of the VW assembly plant in June 1965, a momentous event that is more alive than ever.

And it is that, over the years, the famous VW Sedan is as Puebla as the Cathedral, the Rosario Chapel or the mole, being part of the Puebla culture and one of the pride of the effort of the people of Puebla.
On July 26, 1950 the State Congress approved that the state capital should be called "Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza", the decree being published in the Official State Newspaper on August 4, 1950.
It is this timeless Puebla, with the most extensive Historical Center of the American continent given the importance, number and quality of preserved monuments, registered by UNESCO as World Heritage since 1987 and, recognized by this same prestigious international organization, as
Memory of the World, with two documentary repositories: the Palafoxiana Library and the Municipal Historical Archive; The Angelópolis, recently named the Four Times Heroic City (May 2013), still delights us with its rich and varied convent gastronomy, its unique customs, traditions and celebrations, which proudly celebrates the 485th anniversary of its foundation.

Puebla was founded as part of a utopian project and was intended to be inhabited only by Spaniards. In this new city, it was sought to allow the flourishing of the arts and humanistic virtues, being Puebla cuisine, an innate reflection of these ideas, which led it to become the cradle of today's Mexican gastronomy, since the union of pre-Hispanic ingredients, the species of the Nao of China and the Spanish knowledge, gave to create new and delicious dishes with a characteristic feature of miscegenation.

Puebla cuisine is a cultural heritage of the people of Puebla, a hallmark, a summary of its history, of the fusion of various worlds.

The symbolic dish with national significance is Chile en Nogada, a product of the chili peppers called “of the time” originating from the slopes of the Popocatépetl volcano, with less itching and a structure finished off with a “crochet” point impossible to imitate. Its filling is a product of the mixture of the Spanish traditions of the "picadillos" of fresh and tanned fruits, meats, almonds, cinnamon and various spices, topped by the "capeo" of egg a little cut so as not to make volume, just to hold the meat to the chili and allow its aesthetic presentation. Salsa de nogada, originally from Castilla León, was used in convents long before the discovery of America and served to complement the onion and beet salads. All year long the City of Puebla lives up to its fame: “three things they eat the poblano, pork, pig and marrano ”in allusion to the industry derived from the XNUMXth century tocinerías. Pork meat is consumed in various forms, in carnitas tacos fried in lard, cueritos and the most precious pork head, where they are selected by crop, cheek, tongue, ear and those of the entrails. The pig's head is also consumed in white pozole, jointly boiled peanut kernels and seasoned with onion, ground oregano, lettuce and radishes.

One of the Puebla symbols adopted last century, are the Chalupas. These, prepared in the Almoloya laundry area, consist of a small tortilla fried in butter, almost parboiled, dipped in sauce and garnished with onion and shredded meat.

Other foods that are consumed throughout the year are cemitas, original from Puebla, and compound cakes, which consist of water bread filled with countless stews and meats. Molotes, tostadas, memelas, picadas, pumpkin flower quesadillas and pressed chicharrón or tlales, pelonas and pambazos, among others, are appetizers that are offered in the heat of a comal. Homemade casseroles such as zancarrón and almond mole, entomatado, pretended chiles, adobo, manchamanteles, red and green pipianes, mole of epazote or chilate and sifted flour tamales filled with cheese, rajas, meat or raisins abound all year round. and cream.

Puebla cuisine is a cultural heritage of the people of Puebla, a hallmark, a summary of its history, of the fusion of various worlds.