Guadalajara, in its most traditional part, is synonymous with mariachi, folklore, charrería, tequila and citizens who receive their visitors with great human warmth. The illustrious capital of the state of Jalisco has a varied offer of historical monuments and places of cultural interest, which make it a city rich in beauty. The kindness and charm of its inhabitants, the excellent climate throughout the year and its beautiful avenues adorned with lush groves are also indisputable. Being in Guadalajara is living a large and modern metropolis imbued with traditional Mexican flavor.
Its name comes from the Arabic Wad-al-Hidjara which means: "River that runs between stones" or "Stony River"
Pre-Hispanic period.-In the center of the Atemajac Valley, where Guadalajara is currently located, there were no human settlements, only in its surroundings.
To the east of the Atemajac Valley were Tonallan and Tetlán. At the extremes were Zapopan, Atemajac, Zoquipan, Tesistán, Coyula and Huentitán.
Conquest of Mexico and foundation of Guadalajara.-The foundation of Guadalajara was long and tortuous. In 1522 the first Spanish conquistadors, led by Cristóbal de Olid began the process of conquering the territories that today make up the state of Jalisco.
In 1530 Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán set out to conquer the region, entering La Barca towards Tonallan, accompanied by 500 Spanish soldiers and 15 indigenous people.
Once the objective was achieved, he decided to call Guadalajara to the conquered lands, in honor of the Spanish city where he was born and establish there a city in which he could maintain control of these territories.
The first foundation of Guadalajara happened in 1532 in Nochistlán. The Villa de Guadalajara was founded by 42 residents, however, it lasted just under a year in that place, when it was decided to move the city to a place where there was more water and better living conditions.
The second foundation of Guadalajara was made in Tonalá, where it would remain for approximately 2 years.
The third foundation of Guadalajara occurred in 1535 in the Tlacotán region, however, the colonists were continually attacked by the indigenous people of the region, forcing them to find a new location for the city.
Finally, on February 14, 1542, the city of Guadalajara was founded for the fourth and last time in the Atemajac Valley, on the banks of the San Juan de Dios River.
The first inhabitants of Guadalajara were peninsular and indigenous Spaniards, it is calculated that the initial population of the city was approximately 300 inhabitants.
Viceroyalty.-Guadalajara in the sixteenth century was a small city. It was considered a rather passing place, frequented mainly by traveling merchants.
There were several epidemics that dramatically reduced the indigenous population. For this reason, in 1557 the first hospital was founded in Guadalajara.
In 1560 Guadalajara officially became the capital of Nueva Galicia.
Guadalajara in the XNUMXth century
During this time Guadalajara experienced a remarkable growth in religious, cultural and infrastructure matters, causing a considerable increase in the city's population.
Little by little, Guadalajara became more important within New Spain.
The religious flourishing in the region was led by the Franciscan, Augustinian, Dominican, Mercedarian, Jesuit and Discalced Carmelite orders, whose legacy is still visible in some parts of the city.
Guadalajara in the XNUMXth century.-During this time the inhabitants of Guadalajara reached a high standard of living, due to the flourishing of industry, field production, crafts, mining and commerce.
Despite having gone through epidemics, plagues and earthquakes, Guadalajara ended up consolidating itself as one of the most important population centers in New Spain.
The apogee that Guadalajara had gave rise to architects, philosophers, lawyers, scientists, poets, writers, and speakers who decided to move to the city, Francisco Xavier Clavijero and Matías de la Mota Padilla were some of the most outstanding.
In 1771 one of the most notable characters in the history of Guadalajara arrived in the city: Bishop Fray Antonio Alcalde, who founded the Civil Hospital and the University of Guadalajara.
In 1793, the first printing press in Guadalajara, managed by Mariano Valdés Téllez, emerged, the first edition of which was a funeral eulogy for Fray Antonio Alcalde.
Independence in Guadalajara.
Miguel Hidalgo entered San Pedro (today Tlaquepaque) on November 25, 1810 and the following day he was effusively received in Guadalajara.
On December 6, 1810 Miguel Hidalgo abolished slavery in Guadalajara
On January 17, 1817, the insurgent army was defeated on the outskirts of Guadalajara in the battle of the Puente de Calderón.
Nueva Galicia, today Jalisco, joined the Plan of Iguala on June 13, 1821.
Guadalajara in independent Mexico, XNUMXth century
The federalists from Jalisco, Prisciliano Sánchez, Luis Quintanar and Valentín Gómez Farías, played a fundamental role in the construction of independent Mexico, whose precepts were reflected in the Constitution of 1824.
In 1858 President Benito Juárez transferred his government to Guadalajara due to disputes between liberals and conservatives.
Juárez was about to be shot, however, he was rescued by Guillermo Prieto, who harangued the victimizers by saying: "Stop, the brave do not murder."
The conflicts that occurred in the second half of the XNUMXth century seriously damaged part of the city's heritage, the convents of Santo Domingo, San Francisco and El Carmen being the most affected.
In 1866 the Degollado Theater opened, one of the main architectural icons of our city.
The final part of the XNUMXth century marked a new cultural and artistic flourishing in the city, highlighting figures such as the lawyer, Ignacio L. Vallarta, the writer José López Portillo y Rojas, the lawyer, Miguel Contreras Medellín and the businessman Francisco Martínez Negrete.
Guadalajara at the beginning of the XNUMXth century
During the government of Porfirio Díaz, Guadalajara lived a stage of stability and commercial and industrial growth.
This heyday was reflected in the architecture of the city, especially in the downtown area.
Hospitals, schools, trams and the railway station were built. In addition, electrical installations for the city.
The Mexican Revolution in Guadalajara
The Mexican Revolution had more social than military implications in Guadalajara. Highlighting the factions supporting Venustiano Carranza and Pancho Villa.
On July 8, 1914 the Constitutionalist Army entered the city.
Clashes between Villistas and Carrancistas were recorded in the hills of El Cuatro and El Gachupín.
José Guadalupe Zuno was the first governor of Jalisco (1923-1926) of the post-revolutionary era, during his government he intensified the distribution of land and reopened the University of Guadalajara in 1925.
Guadalajara in the XNUMXth century
The work of the artist José Clemente Orozco flourished, who painted the impressive murals of the Hospicio Cabañas, the Government Palace and the Auditorium of the University of Guadalajara.
The flourishing of cinema as a source of entertainment resulted in the opening of the Variedades, Alameda and Juárez cinemas.
Once the Second World War was over, Guadalajara underwent a series of important transformations: the bus station (Av. Dr. R. Michel), the State Public Library and the Museum of Archeology were built.
In 1960 the Jalisco Stadium was inaugurated and in 1970 it hosted the World Cup, highlighting the participation of the Brazilian team, led by Edson Arantes do Nascimento "Pelé."
During the government of Flavio Romero de Velasco (1977-1983) the Plaza Tapatia was built.
In 1986, Guadalajara returned to host the World Cup, again highlighting the presence of the Brazilian team in the city.
In 1987 the first edition of the International Book Fair (FIL) was held, considered today as the second most important in the world.
Guadalajara in the XXI century
In 2011 Guadalajara hosted the Pan American Games, the highest sports fair in the American continent.
Currently Guadalajara is part of a metropolitan area, where just over 4 million inhabitants live, made up of the municipalities of Zapopan, San Pedro Tlaquepaque, Tonalá, Tlajomulco de Zúñiga, El Salto, Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos, Ju anacatlán and Zapotlanejo.
Today our city is recognized for the warmth of its people and for the quality of life it offers to its inhabitants.
Guadalajara has established itself as one of the great capitals of America, as a cultural, diverse and innovative city.
Drowned tortas. It is prepared with birote bread, with a firm interior and a crispy exterior, it is filled with Jalisco-style carnitas and is bathed in a sauce made from Yahualica tree chile and another tomato sauce. Another ingredient that can not miss the drowned cake is the skinned onion. According to the Tapatian legend, the dish was invented by a hungry day laborer, he improvised a cake with what he had on hand and created a classic of Jalisco gastronomy.
Apology. The most traditional meat to make the typical birria of Jalisco gastronomy is that of goat. Although, lately, beef and sheep are also frequently used. Goat meat is topped with a sauce made from chilies and spices. The broth that results from cooking is delicious and serves as a sauce to eat, although you can add another dressing when served. Cazuelitas.-It is prepared by filling the plate with ice cubes, pieces of orange, lemon, grapefruit and a pinch of sea salt to balance the acidity, as well as a generous portion of tequila and one more dose of grapefruit soda.