Sonora

Witness of great historical changes for the country, creator of great revolutionary events, great indigenous struggles and a very important commercial transit space in Mexico. This land has given shelter to countless European, Asian, American, Indian and family immigrants from all over the world who were looking to find a habitat similar to where they came from.

Sonora has witnessed great historical changes for the country, creator of great revolutionary events, great indigenous struggles and a very important commercial transit space in Mexico.

This region is the object of study by archaeologists and historians who continue to find prehistoric remains, very large fossil bones that indicate that in Sonora the forested areas abounded, which served as a den and migratory passage, both for people and species.

This land has sheltered countless European, Asian, American, Indian and family immigrants from all over the world who were looking to find a habitat similar to where they came from, this is how seeds of technological innovations were planted in the field and fruit growing , mining, livestock, industrial processes, iron forging, weaving and spinning, new tools to make war accessories and other groups whose work was to establish the religion they professed in many towns.

A brief account of our history

Sonora was constituted as a Federal entity by Law of the General Congress on October 13, 1830, but it was until March 14, 1831 when it became effective and the first authorities were installed.

When created as an "entity", Sonora and Sinaloa were united in the so-called Western State, formed in 1824 by means of the Constitutive Act of the Federation.

We are the result of the capitulations held in March 1637, between General Pedro de Perea and the Viceroy of New Spain, Duke of Escalona.

The General of Perea, in the face of his incursions and conquests, ensured Spanish dominance in this region, which he called the "Nueva Andalucía".

The name of Sonora was promoted until 1648.

A great adventure of missionary conquest took place in Sonora when ethnic groups that professed other religious practices prevailed; fabulous awareness campaigns were carried out here, long journeys on horseback through abrupt and eminently desert places, frontal fights with strange groups that were dedicated to the looting of passers-by, moral and technical training and many things that laid the foundations for change at regional levels, where Entire towns were transformed under these expectations, all of this was instilled by the Jesuit Father Don Eusebio Francisco Kino, with his 40 expeditions over 24 years, thus leaving a great legacy of works and widely recognized routes.

He was founder and organizer of the missions of the north of the state, such as the Pimería Alta; It is worth mentioning that throughout his journey he built countless churches, as part of his great legacy.

26 years after the Consummation of the Independence of Mexico, Sonora suffered the loss of an important part of its territory. When war was declared with the United States in 1847, we lost more than 50 percent of its land, 109 square kilometers, in the "Treaty of La Mesilla".

At the time of the Reformation, the State suffered another invasion in March 1865 of the French Army. The battle was fought in Alamos, for this reason it is called "The Battle of Alamos".

Groups of French soldiers also came to Hermosillo and were evicted in 1866. In these battles, the Republican generals Ignacio Pesquería, Jesús García Morales and Ángel Martínez stood out.

Already at the time of the Revolution, Sonora stood out as the cradle of the Revolution for being the place where the first labor movement rose with the Cananea strike in 1906, subsequently inspiring the Río Blanco strike in the state of Veracruz and later the armed struggle of 1910, when the Mexican Revolution began.

In 1929 the Sonoran generals Álvaro Obregón, Abelardo L. Rodríguez, Benjamín Hill and Plutarco Elías Calles, elaborated the “Plan de Agua Prieta” on April 13, 1920, against President Venustiano Carranza.

From this same year, four Sonorans occupied the presidency of the Republic: Adolfo de la Huerta in 1920; Álvaro Obregón in the same year; Plutarco Elías Calles in 1924 and Abelardo L. Rodríguez in 1932.

Sonora's history is full of highly relevant chapters that tell us about a town rich in traditions, effort and perseverance to overcome natural challenges.

Our state has served as inspiration for many musical authors, hymns and has also fostered the development of "norteño" groups whose identity is unique due to their talents and type of music.

Today, Sonora stands out for its modernity and for fighting climatic adversities with resounding success.

It enchants visitors with its numerous tourist spaces, the hospitality of its people, gastronomy and with the traces of history that prevail in constructions, petroglyphs, fossils and indigenous traditions, making this land a magical place.

Long live Sonora!

Ethnicities

Known by the name given by the colonizers, most of the indigenous groups in Sonora call themselves "the people" in their languages. Of the nine towns into which they were originally divided, eight of them still remain united, mostly indigenous and others with a stay of little more than 100 years in the State. The eight living ethnic groups are Pimas, Cucapás, Mayos, Guarijíos, Kikapús, Yaquis, Pápagos and Seris. These “people” have been characterized by their persistence and their remarkable ability to adapt to an environment that is too hostile and demanding. Although their cultures today have respect and recognition, many of them are in danger of disappearing like the Cucapá, located in the municipality of San Luis Río Colorado, which has a population of just under 80 inhabitants. And the Kikapoo, originating from the Northeast of the United States but settled in the town of Bacerac just over a century ago; its population is around 90 people.

On the other hand, the Yaquis (yoheme), the most representative culture of Sonora, is an ethnic group that has a population of 33 thousand inhabitants and is distributed in eight towns in the south of the state. Its neighbors, the Mayos (yóreme), are the most numerous town (75 thousand people) and it is distributed in the municipalities of Huatabampo, Etchojoa, Navojoa, Quiriego and Álamos. Both ethnic groups are rich in crafts and traditions, keep their languages ​​alive and have a deep religious sense that can be appreciated in their rites and festivals during Easter.

The Seris (Comca'ac), possibly the oldest inhabitants of these lands, are located on the central coast of the entity and on Isla del Tiburón. They have a population of 650 inhabitants but their culture is rich in traditions and their handicrafts made of ironwood and torote prieto are known worldwide.

There are also other ethnic groups such as the Papagos (Tohono o'odham), in the desert between the states of Sonora and Arizona; the Guarijíos (Makurawe), who live in the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Pimas (O'ob), scattered in some areas between Yécora and towns in the state of Chihuahua. It is also important to note that there is a Triqui indigenous community from the state of Oaxaca settled on the coast of Hermosillo. Few or numerous, these indigenous peoples owe many of the traditions that we have inherited and we must help them preserve their culture.

The most important indigenous dances are the Deer Dance, the Páscola Dance and the Matachines Dance, which occurs mainly in the south of the State.

Festivals

Some of the most important cultural festivals in the state are the Alfonso Ortiz Tirado Festival (FAOT) in Álamos, the Fiestas del Pitic in Hermosillo, the Fiestas de San Francisco in Magdalena de Kino and the Guaymas Carnival.

Museums

The most representative museums of Sonora are the Art Museum of Sonora (Musas) and the Museum of Popular Culture in Hemrosillo, the Costumbrista Museum of Sonora in Álamos, the House Museum of General Álvaro Obregón in Huatabampo, the Ethnic Museum of the Yaquis in Cócorit, Let me the Comca'ac Museum (of the Seris) in Bahía de Kino, Hermosillo; the Ures Regional History Museum in Ures, the Silvestre Rodríguez Museum in Nacozari de García and the Museum of Workers' Struggle in Cananea.

STEAKS AND GRILLED SPECIALS

The traditional charcoal barbecue of beef, accompanied by Mexican sauces, beans and flour tortillas, is the most popular Sonoran dish at parties and events throughout the State. Hermosillo is considered the capital of roast meat; He has even held the Guinness Record for the "World's Largest Roast Beef".

SEAFOOD

Whether fresh or cooked, seafood is part of the culinary offer of the main destinations in Sonora, be it beach or city. Cocktails, toasts, tacos, clams and oysters in its shell, among other delicacies from the sea, make up the menu of countless establishments, from carts to award-winning restaurants.

HOT DOGS

Originally a North American dish, the hot-dog, hot dog, jotcho or dogo has been tropicalized in Sonora by including ingredients such as cooked beans, Mexican sauce, mushrooms or guacamole, for example. Each city has its own style, so finding the most delicious is a fun and flavorful gastronomic exercise.

CECINA

Ciudad Obregón has one of the best cured meats in the country. Fortunately, this dish can also be found in the capital and in some other cities of the State. It is beef cured in the sun, with lemon and salt; once tanned, it is roasted to sign the masterpiece. Try it with their beans, grilled cheese rolls and various sauces.

WAKABAKI or COOKED

Prepared with meat and bone of beef, chickpea, beans, squash, carrots, green beans, cabbage, corn and spices; accompanied with armpit flour tortillas.

BACANORA

It is a distillate originating from the municipality of the same name, in Sonora. It is made from the cooking, fermentation and distillation of agave, as well as tequila and mezcal. After recent certifications, the Sonoran bacanora, a regional drink, can now be marketed internationally.

FLOUR TORTILLAS

Gorditas, taqueras or large for donkeys just as big, flour tortillas are an art in their preparation and a delight for the palate. The Sonora can be eaten alone, with a little butter spread or with all kinds of dishes, from roast meat to traditional broths and stews. Try a fresh one!

COYOTAS

Between the way from the cookie to the empanada, is this Sonoran dessert made from wheat flour, shortening, sugar and, traditionally, brown sugar. Today, there are several flavors and even filled with snow, as in Caborca. For many, after a good roast beef, a delicious coyota and a coffee from a bag.

CHILTEPÍN

The warning comes before adding chiltepín to the dishes as their itchiness is inversely proportional to their size.